Painted Turtles As Pets

The painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) is not your average aquatic turtle. This species (including its various subspecies) has the largest range of any north American turtle, and can found in suitable habitats from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast of North America. It is also colorful, outgoing, moderately-sized, and very undemanding. Let’s take a closer look at painted turtles and see whether they are the right pet turtle for you.

Tank Setup

Tank setup for painted turtles generally follows the basic design already described. Like the red-eared slider, with which it is often confused, painted turtles are the quintessential basking-type turtle that inhabits ponds, lakes and lazy rivers, around which they spend a great deal of time soaking up the sun. If you’ve ever seen them in the wild, you will understand just how important these basking sites are. Juveniles and adults will often be piled up on one another in the choicest sunning spots, and long tanning lines of individuals will form on sufficiently thick tree branches. Consequently, you will need a good heat lamp or ceramic heater, and it is also a good idea to use a UV-B emitting bulb as well.

In addition to providing a good basking spot, these turtles will enjoy a large and deep swimming area. These are not large turtles, but, depending on the subspecies, males will generally reach at least 4 inches at maturity, with females getting to around 7 inches in total carapace length. Applying the general rule of thumb of 10 gallons to each inch of carapace length is a good starting point when estimating tank size.

Like just about all basking turtles, the painted turtle likes to shred its food and will generally make a mess of just about anything it eats. This, coupled with their significant size at maturity, poses a real challenge in terms of water quality. Consequently, we again stress that you consider using a quality canister filter for their tanks, in addition to regular (preferably weekly) 50% water changes. Dechlorinated tap water is fine for painted turtles and they are relatively unaffected by things like pH and water hardness.

Typical household temperatures are fine, and generally obviate the need for heating the water so long as a basking temperature under the light of close to 100F is reached. However, in winter things can get more complicated. As discussed below, the various subspecies come from different climatic zones. For example, the eastern painted turtle (C. p. picta), as it is used to hibernating during the winter months, will have a strong instinct to prepare for a long cold winter, and if water temperatures start to dip below 70F in your tank, it could cause this species to stop feeding. This drive is so hard-wired that some turtles may stop feeding as autumn approaches, even if warm water temperatures are maintained.

Feeding

Painted turtles will happily accept most turtle food. Like other basking species, they tend to start life as carnivores, eating insects, small fish, tadpoles, etc., and then move towards a more vegetable-based, omnivorous diet. Make sure to dust prepared foods with a high quality supplement. I have always used Rep-Cal for providing crucial vitamin D and calcium, and would not recommend any other. A failure to supplement foods with these vitamins is just asking for trouble, and is particularly damaging to young, growing turtles that are likely to manifest shell deformities as they mature.

Sexing

Young turtles are very difficult to sex, but as they grow males will show several differences. Males will tend to have larger front claws, a longer, thicker tail, and a more concave plastron (underside of shell) compared to the flat plastron of the female. Of course, the female will normally get significantly larger than the male as well.

Lifespan

Like most basking turtles, the painted variety is very long lived. The eastern subspecies is reported to live between 20 to 40 years, and mature in about 10 years. This is likely a very conservative estimate of this species lifespan in the wild. In captivity, a well cared for turtle should easily live for more than 20 years.

Painted Turtle Subspecies

One neat thing about these animals is how they’ve begun to change since the last ice age. Currently, there are four recognized subspecies:

    1. Eastern Subspecies (C. p. picta): this subspecies is prevalent along most of the east coast, along a wide swath stretching from Novia Scotia to Georgia. It is typified by a dark green to black carapace, sometime with a faint midline stripe and red edging along the marginal scutes. This is a moderately-sized turtle, with an average mature carapace length of 5-7 inches for the male, and 6-7 inches for the female.
    1. Midland Subspecies (C. p. marginata): the midland painted turtle occurs in a wide inland area that starts in the north from southern Quebec and Ontario, and goes westward as far as Michigan, Indiana and southern Illinois. Its southernmost extent falls somewhere in Tennessee. This subspecies mixes with eastern form along the northeastern boundary of its range, and this “integrade” is the dominant from throughout much of Pennsylvania. A nondescript form of painted turtle. Adults are between 4 and 10 inches in total length.
    1. Western Subspecies (C. p. bellii): this subspecies is reportedly the largest, reaching 10 inches in total length, and covers the most area of the North American continent. Its easternmost extent starts in western Illinois and a small extension of its range continues as far west as the northern Oregon coast and southern border of Washington state. It occurs as far south as northern Oklahoma and as far north as Lake Manitoba. The most notable feature of this subspecies is a brightly colored, reddish plastron.
  1. Southern Subspecies (C. p. dorsalis): not only is this the smallest subspecies, with an average carapace length of 4-6 inches, but it has the most limited range as well. It is generally found in western Tennessee, Arkansas, Alabama, and Lousiana. The southern painted turtle can usually be recognized by its relatively vivid, red midline dorsal stripe.

Painted Turtles as Pets – The Verdict

These are generally colorful and easy to please aquatic turtles that should thrive in a basic turtle tank setup provided they are given enough room. While all of the subspecies can be maintained in captivity, some of the subspecies adapted to the northern latitudes may have a tendency to go off feed in the winter, even if adequate water temperatures are maintained year-round. For this reason, the southern painted variety may be a more ideal choice as a pet, since it hails from a much warmer clime. In addition, as the smallest of the subspecies, it can be housed in slightly smaller enclosures.

How Do Turtle Eggs Breath?

A sea turtle nest gains an advantage from being between several inches (15 cm or more to top) to a yard (1 meter) under the surface of the sand. Temperature moderates as depth increases both in terms of absolute value and daily fluctuation. Water content of the sand stays stable of depths of the nest even though the sand dries near the surface. The main problem for a clutch of eggs is obtaining enough oxygen to carry out metabolism and getting rid of carbon dioxide produced in respiration. Oxygen is transported in the air and sand surrounding the nest to the clutch inside the nest by the process known as diffusion. Carbon dioxide is transported away in the same way.

Fick’s law of diffusion defines the process. The movement of material by diffusion depends upon the driving force that exists between an area of high concentration and one of low concentration and the resistance of the pathway between the source and the sink. In the case of a turtle nest the sand provides most of the resistance because the eggshell is relatively porous to the flow of gases. In some cases oxygen can drop from 20.9% in the air to 20.4% in the sand due to the metabolism of bacteria in the sand and to 12 – 14% in the middle of the clutch just before hatching. However, the level of oxygen in the clutch is similar to alveoli in the human lung.

One of the reasons that leatherback turtles lay their eggs in the dry season is that the dry layer that forms at the surface of the sand helps to transport gases more readily between the air and the nest. Olive Ridley nests on arribada beaches suffer from low oxygen levels because of the high density of the nests in the beach and the decay of the eggs broken during arribadas.

It is amazing that a clutch of sea turtle eggs can survive buried 10 – 36 inches under the sand. Oxygen must diffuse from the air down into the sand and into the egg. Carbon dioxide must move in the opposite direction. A developing sea turtle embryo breathes through its shell as does a chicken embryo, which has the same concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide inside its shell as occur in the human lung. Sea turtle eggs have similar internal gas concentrations, but there is a difference. The turtle eggshell is very porous, facilitating gas movement, while the chicken eggshell is very resistant. The sea turtles egg’s gas concentrations are set by the rate at which air can move through the sand and into the egg. Oxygen filters down through almost three feet of sand, through the pores between the sand grains, then between the eggs in the clutch, and finally into the egg in the middle of the clutch. The main barrier is the rate of movement of air between the sand grains. That three foot layer of sand essentially functions like the chicken eggshell or human air passes into the lung. It serves as the respiratory pathway for the sea turtle egg.

Who Uses Snake Repellers?

Who uses snake repellers?

Snake repellers keep homes and other designated areas snake free and safe. There are a variety of snake repellers on the market that effectively remove snakes from locations they are not wanted. There are environmentally friendly repellers, natural repellers, homemade repellers, electronic repellers, chemical repellers and simple constructions like fences that are used to keep snakes off property. These repellers work by generating odors, feelings, sounds or smells that make the snake feel uncomfortable in the area so that they go elsewhere. In areas where snakes are pests, there are many different types of repellers, not only because the snakes react differently to different stimuli but also because there are several different types of users. These include:

The Farmer

The main aim of the farmer is to take care of his livestock and snakes threaten the sustainability of the livestock and to a greater extent the livelihood of the farmer. Snakes will eat eggs and smaller animals and some snakes can emit deadly poison that can kill very large animals. Snakes make homes in tall grass and in cozy areas on a farm where they are not easily seen and come out to feed. Losing livestock to snakes means a loss of income and so farmers will gout of their way to get the best in snake repellers to protect their investment. They usually use fences and electronic devices to keep snakes at bay.

The environmentally friendly

The environmentally friendly person would want to keep the snake away from their property without harming the snake or upsetting the processes of nature in any other way. They want to repel the snake just as much as the next person but they prefer to use natural elements to influence the activities of the snake. The urine or feces of predators are used to make snakes think that there is a predator in the area and make them go in another direction. This does not always work and is sometimes reinforced by electronic devices the emit pulses that gives the snake the same impression that makes them afraid to enter the area.

The Home maker

The home maker is tired of cleaning up after snakes and sacred of attacks on children and pets. They reduce the bushes in the yard and ensure that the grass is cut low to ensure the snake cannot find a place to hide. The home maker would be more inclined to use chemicals like mothball flakes and sulfur to ward off snakes.

The property owner or caretaker

Having a property with snakes devalues the property and does not do much for it aesthetically either. The caretaker will want to have a pristine looking property with no predators or pests. Therefore they will stop at nothing to keep snakes out. The property owner or caretaker will ensure that the grass is cut to prevent snakes from hiding and nesting on the property, they will put up fences to keep snakes out, they may use electronic devices to redirect snake and as an additional precaution they will use chemicals to eliminate the pest nuisance.

The type of environment is a definite indicator of what type of snake repeller will be used to get rid of snakes from properties. The preference of the individual is a major deciding factor also. Some persons have their own personal beliefs and agenda in addition to their need to get rid of the snakes. This coupled with the state of the infestation and the type of property ultimately determines the type of action the user will take.

Morphology of Snakes

Co-dominant: A visible mutation appears when a single gene in an allele is different than normal. Two different genes can bring a ‘super’ form of that gene which looks different than the single gene itself.

Dominant: When a single allele is different than the normal allele.

Het/Heterozygous: Has a gene inside of the snake that is not visible. Otherwise none as a recessive trait.

Homo/Homozygous: A matched pair of mutated genes

Recessive: The gene is present in the snake, but not visible, but can be passed down. Example (albino is a recessive trait)

Snakes contain genes that are responsible for their colors and patterns. Each gene contains an allele from each parent of the snake. When bred, snakes combine their DNA/alleles into their babies. There are many different forms of ‘mutated’ alleles (explained below). These genes are not just present in the snake world, but in every species.

Since mutated alleles are more uncommon than normal alleles the snake with mutated alleles is usually more expensive. Many people spend thousands of dollars on obtaining the next created morph. When I think of the word morph, Ball Pythons come into mind. The market for Ball Pythons is extremely flooded with all sorts of morphs. Example: Albino, Axanthic, Banana, Clown, Pieds, Pastel… etc.

Of course there are other snake species that are well known for their wide range of morphs, corn snakes, king snakes, red tail boas, burmese pythons, and reticulated pythons.

Morphs may be awesome however some genes are weak and when bred together can produce unhealthy babies and kinked snakes. Always do your research before buying a snake. Example: The spider Ball Python is usually born with a ‘wobble’ due to the weak genes in its DNA, this gives the snake a neurological problem which causes it to bob it’s head all around when moving, sometimes it even affects its eating. Weak or damaged genes can also cause the female snakes to not be able to become gravid/they are infertile. Example: Desert Ball Pythons, Caramel Albino Ball Pythons.

Four Tips For Better Horse Stall Maintenance

You love your horse. That’s no secret. Your equine companion brings you lots of joy and is even a great friend to you. But as a horse owner, you probably know the one thing that you don’t exactly love to do when it comes to your horse: cleaning the horse stall.

The job can be time-consuming and messy, but it is an important task. The condition of your pet’s lodging is a strong influence on its health. Exposing your pet to a dirty area puts it at risk of skin problems, breathing disorders, and other diseases. Your hoofed friend depends on you for a safe and clean haven.

So how can you keep the stable area clean and safe while minimizing the amount of work put into it? Use these four tips for horse stall maintenance to keep your pet healthy and to keep you happy.

1. Use a mat. While this seems to be a given, a rubber mat can cut a lot of work out of your maintenance. It will catch a lot of detritus that would otherwise end up on the floor of the box, so removing it during cleaning periods will do a lot of the job for you. Rubber mats also provide great traction for your horse and are quite cost-effective.

2. Use the proper tools. The type of bedding fork you use will depend on what sort of bedding is in the box. If you use straw, then a pitchfork will be your best bet, whereas if you use wood pellet bedding or shavings, you will want a bedding fork with its tines closer together. A lightweight wheelbarrow will make your loading trips quicker and easier on you. Have a sturdy leaf rake and a stiff broom available too, and a muck bucket will be important as well. Keep these tools in a place where they can be easily accessed and stored to save you time.

3. Make sure the area is dry. A moist, closed-in environment can breed a fungal disease called thrush. Avoid this by keeping the space as dry as you can. After cleaning, push the bedding against the walls and let the area dry out before letting your pet back in. A dry stable area will also help make your maintenance easier over time, as it can prevent mold and pests from making themselves comfortable there.

4. Give your friend some space. You must remember that horses are meant to live outdoors. They crave wide areas, which means keeping them shut in goes against their very nature. Giving your animal time to stretch its legs will not only keep it happy and healthy, but it will also give it less time to dirty the stable space.

Reducing Stress for First Time Horse Owners

Being a first time horse owner can be very stressful. Horses are very sensitive, large, powerful and expensive to own as pets. How do you know if your horse is colicky, and then what do you do? What do I feed my horse? Is my horse drinking enough water? What do you do for lameness issues? When is it serious enough to need to contact a veterinarian? Without the proper support, knowledge and experience owning a horse can quickly become a disaster. Boarding your horse at a reputable boarding facility is not always economical. Surrounding yourself with experienced equine owners, having a qualified trainer, and being willing to read and learn on your own are a few steps that can help reduce the stress of first time horse owners.

Surround yourself with experienced equine owners. One of the most valuable things you can have as a horse owner is having experienced horse-owning friends. You can meet these people from local equine organizations such as 4-H horse clubs, United States Pony Clubs, various horse show organizations or events, and even at your local feed store. The following are some benefits to surrounding yourself with experienced equine owners:

• Not only can they give you advice when you need it, they can be an incredible source of support if something is negative is going on with your horse.
• In a situation that is new to you, it can be much more comfortable to contact a person you know rather than a veterinarians office right away.
• Sometimes an experienced friend’s opinion can help you to feel more at ease about a decision you have made with your horse, or about something that is going on with your horse.
• Experienced horse-owning friends can direct you to the best veterinarians, farriers, trainers, feed stores, and tack stores in your area.

Get a qualified trainer. If you plan on riding your horse at all, this step is key to your success.

• Even if you don’t plan on competing with your horse, proper riding instruction is vital for your and your horse’s safety and well-being.
• Using your equipment incorrectly or using ill-fitting equipment can seriously create health and safety issues for both you and your horse.
• Qualified trainers know how to properly condition and work horses so that you can avoid injuries to your horse.
• Just knowing that you are working with a qualified and educated instructor can be a huge peace of mind and help avoid some stresses related to horseback riding.

Be willing to read and learn on your own. Properly educating yourself can help relieve the stresses related to feelings of ignorance.

• Buying and reading some basic horse care books from your local bookstore is a great way to educate yourself and boost your confidence.

• Internet searches can also provide valuable horse care and maintenance information. Be careful what you read though. Make sure it is a credible source, and not an opinion site. Agricultural University websites and local extension office websites are always good sources from the Internet.

• You can also call your local extension office for advice on caring for your horse.

• Do not be afraid to call your farrier or veterinarian if you have any questions about your horse’s health. These professionals care and want to help you learn to properly care for your horse.

Selecting The Best Horse Bedding

Do you have horses? Whether they are race horses, draft horses or horses for whatever purpose, horse bedding is one of the most vital ingredients in the upkeep of your animals. In this article, we will look at the options for horse bedding and why horse bedding is such an important part of the upkeep of your animals.

One of the largest part of your horses lives is being in the stables. Sleeping and resting in the stables takes up a lot of your horses time and good rest like for humans is essential for good health.

Rest is not the only aspect and when we look deeper into the stable, bedding for your horses becomes a very important part of the comfort your animals enjoy. With good bedding, your animals have better health and overall perform better. The result is cheaper vet bills, and cheaper vet bills makes everyone happy!

Finding the right bedding material for horses is the most important aspect of this. You need to have the right material in the first place.

What are your options?

Common horse bedding materials include:

  • Shredded paper
  • Wood shavings
  • Wood pellets
  • Wood fibre pellets
  • Oat or wheat straw
  • Wheat straw pellets

With so many different options, you may wonder which is the best horse bedding for your horses. The different horse bedding have different advantages and disadvantages.

For example, some bedding can be more expensive than others or require further considerations. Wheat straw for example can become moldy when wet and this could result in having to throw away wheat straw that has become moldy. Rubber matting can be more expensive, but not need ongoing replenishment. Wheat straw pellets may need purchasing instead of using straw from a harvest, but also offer advantages.

All these aspects need to be considered when selecting horse bedding.

Farmers might perceive a cost saving by using farmed crops leftovers as a bedding material, but this can also result in a waste, especially considering the many benefits with the pellet forms of bedding, such as wheat straw pellets.

With so many different horse bedding options, which do you choose?

One option is to look at the overall cost differences. Another is to look at the benefits to your horses health. Wheat straw in itself can cause respiratory problems for horses, so that though it could have a cost advantage, the problems of higher vet bills could be more problem than being a solution.

When you consider cost differences, being sure to look at both initial cost and the long term costs are essential considerations to make. When you factor in the benefits to your horse health, then selecting the best horse bedding options become easier and results in the best experience financially and to your horses health.

Missing Your Pet? Ideas to Ease Your Loss

Losing a pet can be just as painful as losing a beloved family member or a dear friend. Therefore, it’s only natural that you will experience various emotions during this time including sadness, anger, grief and loneliness. Finding a great support system in order to help you move through your grief and the healing process is a great idea. Some of the ideas below could also help ease your loss.

Host a Memorial

Just as you would host a memorial for a family member or friend, hosting a memorial for your pet may be something you would like to do. Sharing special words with guests and inviting everyone to recall special moments that they had with your pet can be very comforting. There are shops, both in-person and online, that sell memorial stones suitable for pets. You could then have your pet buried in an area around the outside of your home that she loved, such as under a tree or near the garden. This can help you ease your loss by knowing your pet will live on in a place that she once loved.

Pet Portrait

It is never a good idea to pretend as if you never had a pet; instead, remember the memories and cherish them, even if it hurts. This is one of the only paths to closure that you will have. You can create a scrapbook full of pictures of your pet, as well as having a favorite pet portrait to display within your home. This allows you to remember great times with your pet, especially on those days when the grief gets the better of you.

Keep a Journal

Writing about your pet is another good idea to consider. This allows you to speak freely about the emotions that are going through your mind without having to hear the thoughts or opinions of others. You can write a short story pertaining to the good times you shared with your pet or a nice poem that describes everything that your pet meant to you. Keeping a journal will help you move through your grief.

Volunteer at an Animal Shelter

While it may be too soon to take ownership of another pet, volunteering at an animal shelter is something you may want to consider. The act of caring for a homeless animal in desperate need of love could help you ease the loss of your pet. When you are emotionally ready to welcome another pet into your home, you will know it; until then, you can ease your grief and sadness by caring for a homeless pet at an animal shelter. If and when you do decide to bring another pet into your home, adopting one from the shelter would be a great way to honor the memory of the pet that you have lost.

If you already have other pets living inside of your home, be sure to take special care of them, as they will be suffering from the loss as well.

Support Groups

While many people may understand the loss that you are experiencing after your pet has died, some will not. Therefore, you may want to consider joining a support group to help ease your loss. You can join support groups for pet owners within your community or you can join these groups via the internet. The members of these groups have experienced the loss of a pet and their purpose is to help you through the grieving process by sharing their wisdom with you.

It is important that you give yourself time to heal after you have lost a pet. This is a deep blow to your heart, and it is okay to allow yourself time to grieve over the loss. The pain you are experiencing is very real, but using the ideas above could help ease your feelings of loss. Remember you are not alone and that there are many others who understand your pain.

Tick Prevention and Control

Your initial line of protection against ticks is to keep them away. Build a fence to help keep deer, a well-known host, away from the lawn. Employ repellent as well as traps to keep smaller rodents, including mice or chipmunks, removed from your property. If you can, install a two or three foot walkway of concrete, gravel or bark between all woodlands or bushes and your yard, play sites and residence. Ticks must have water and as a consequence these kinds of drier regions cause them to dry out and thus deter them from getting across. Always keep your grassy areas and bushes trimmed short and far away from pathways where you, as well as pets, could rub against them and also get rid off any sort of fallen foliage or lawn clippings. Edge sprays utilized in May or June can be successful in high population locations. Popular natural tick applications for your household or backyard are Wondercide Yard And Garden Spray, Wondercide Home Spray as well as Vet’s Best Home Spray. Inorganic products include products like Vet Chem or Adams Plus Yard Spray. For those who don’t choose to add chemical compounds to their yards, experiment with treating the yard with diatomaceous earth. Diatomaceous earth works as a desiccant and can be very effective.

Attempting to keep the animals tick-free doesn’t need to be a full time occupation. For starters, prohibit your pet from going in tall vegetation or playing in foliage and similar tick hiding places. Next, employ a tick poison or tick repellent. There are tons of all-natural oils that get rid of ticks for instance geranium, eucalyptus, peppermint, clove, neem, citrus as well as the earliest shield against bloodsuckers, garlic. These repellents may be rubbed right on your pet; a few droplets behind the skull as well as a one or two drops on the lower back before heading outside. Any of these natural oils can readily be manufactured into sprays in your own home.

A couple of excellent commercially available herbal items are Terra Pet Naturals Drops or Spray and Pure Neem Oil. There are a lot of very good external chemical-type solutions to be found. Recommended are Frontline Plus or K9 Advantix II. Tick collars will also be effective longer term coverage. Seresto Collars for cats and dogs are very effective. You might want to try an oral tick killer like NexGard. NexGard is straightforward to employ, just feed your puppy the flavorful snack one time each month. Wash animals often with a tick repellent and or tick eliminating shampoo. Ovitrol can be particularly reliable for cats and dogs or alternatively utilize the Wondercide Shampoo Bar or Wally’s All Natural Shampoo. Don’t neglect to brush after washing to clear off all dislodged ticks before they get the opportunity to reattach.

Just a few drops of your favorite all-natural tick repellent around ones cuffs before taking off on an outing should be ample protection for most of us. Tuck your trousers into your socks and or utilize gators to help keep ticks outside of your clothes. Maximum potency DEET repellents will also function effectively against ticks. Spraying garments with a Permethrin application will eradicate ticks on contact. You should not use Permethrins directly on your skin. There are actually bug and tick resistant clothes for sale and also do it yourself clothing applications. These products appeal to a lot of people however their capabilities are going to disappear gradually over the course of time.

Choosing the Perfect Dog, Cat or Pet Bed

All of us pet owners know that our cats and dogs have very distinct personalities! Some are outgoing, some are a little more introverted and some just like being close to their owners. When choosing the perfect bed for your cat, dog or other pet, there are lots of factors to consider. Their personality traits are one factor but also consider their habits and their likes and dislikes as well. Also keep in mind where their bed may be placed. If it’s a drafty or very warm area, your choice of bed may be affected and you may want to select a warmer type or cooler bed style.

Our calico cat, Peaches, is a little feisty. We have other words for her at times but I’ll leave that up to your imagination! She likes to bully ‘Princess’ Elsie who doesn’t have a mean bone in her body. She’s super shy and needs a lot of security. A shy or somewhat insecure pet would likely do well with a bolstered bed to offer some security – or a completely enclosed pet bed or house that they can crawl into and get all cozy, away from the world. Of course some cats like to sit in the window and watch the world – and other cats – go by! So, a cozy and comfy window perch is a perfect choice.

When choosing a great bed for your favorite canine, there are lots of sizes available for your Chihuahua-sized dog to your Great Dane! There are comfy pet beds for them to snuggle into and beds with bolsters that offer that extra needed security. Your English Sheep Dog may not need or want that extra fluffiness since they already have a bunch of fluff. But for dogs without all that hair, a pet bed with extra cushioning might be the answer. There are also cooling and heating pads and beds for pets that need it in summer or winter. And there are self-warming beds made of material to specifically harness your pet’s body heat and reflect it back to them.

All in all, by taking the time to consider all factors, you help ensure that your pet will actually use the bed and find it a great source of comfort – their ‘go-to’ place! When you start paying closer attention to your pet’s behaviour and habits, you’ll be amazed at how much better you’ll know your pet!